One Morning in Robyn Penrose's Life

Robyn rises somewhat later than Vic this dark January Monday. Her alarm clock, a replica of an old-fashioned instrument pur­chased from Habitat, with an analogue dial and a little brass bell on the top, rouses her from a deep sleep at 7.30. Unlike Vic, Robyn in­variably sleeps until woken. Then worries rush into her conscious­ness, as into his; but she deals with them in a rational, orderly man­ner. This morning she gives priority to the fact that it is the first day of the winter term, and that she has a lecture to deliver and two tu­torials to conduct. She always feels a twinge of anxiety at the begin­ning of a new term. She sits up in bed for a moment, doing some complicated breathing and flexing of the abdominal muscles, learned in yoga classes, to calm herself.

She was born, and christened Roberta Anne Penrose, in Melbourn, Australia, nearly thirty-three years ago, but left that country at the age of five to accompany her parents to England. Robyn had a comfortable childhood. She attended an excellent grammar school which she left with four A grades at A-level. Though urged by the school to apply for a place at Oxbridge, she chose instead to go to Sussex University.

Robyn kicks off the duvet and gets out of bed. She goes to the window, pulls back the curtain, and peers out. She looks up at the grey clouds scudding across the sky. A gust of wind rattles the sash window and the draught makes Robyn shiver. Clutching herself, she skips to the door from rug to rug, like a Scottish country dancer, across the landing and into the bathroom. She pulls the nightdress over her head and steps into the bath, not first pulling the chain of the toilet because that would affect the temperature of the water coming through the showerhead on the end of a flexible tube, with which she now hoses herself down. She steps from the bath, stretch­ing for a towel in one of those ungainly postures so beloved of Im­pressionist painters.

Robyn, a dressing-gown over her underclothes and slippers on her feet, descends the short dark staircase to the ground floor and goes into her narrow and extremely untidy kitchen. She lights the gas stove, and makes herself a breakfast of muesli, wholemeal toast and decaffeinated coffee. The sound of the Guardian dropping on to the doormat sends her scurrying to the front door. Robyn scans the front-page headline of the Guardian, but does not linger over the text beneath. She puts her soiled breakfast things in the sink, already crammed with the relics of last night's supper, and hurries upstairs.

Robyn straightens the sheet on the bed, shakes and spreads the duvet. She sits at her dressing-table and vigorously brushes her hair, a mop of copper-coloured curls. Now she robs moisturizer into her facial skin as protection against the raw wintry air outside, coats her lips with lip-salve, and brushes some green eyeshadow on her eye­lids. Her simple cosmetic operations completed, she dresses herself in green tights, a wide brown tweed skirt and a thick sweater loosely knitted in muted shades of orange, green and brown. She takes from the bottom of her wardrobe a pair of half-length fashion boots in dark brown leather and sits on the edge of the bed to pull them on.

Robyn goes into her long narrow living-room, which also serves as her study. She lifts from the floor a leather bag, and begins to load it with the things she will need for the day.

Returning to the kitchen, Robyn turns down the thermostat of the central heating and checks that the back door of the house is locked and bolted. In the hall she wraps a long scarf round her neck and puts on a cream-coloured quilted cotton jacket. Outside, in the street, her car is parked, a red six-year-old Renault Five. Robyn turns the ignition key, holding her breath as she listens to the starter's bronchial wheeze, then exhales with relief as the engine fires.

She drives through the gates of the University, parks her car in one of the University's car parks, and makes her way to the English Department. She passes into the foyer of the Arts Block. There are several students slouching against the wall, or sitting on the floor, outside her room. Robyn gives them a wry look as she approaches, having a pretty good idea of what they want.

'Hallo', she says, by way of a general greeting as she fishes for her door key in her coat pocket. 'Who's first?'



Eventually they are all dealt with, and Robyn is free to prepare for her lecture at eleven. She opens her bag, pulls out the folder containing her notes, and settles to work.

(Extractfrom "Nice Work" by David Lodge. Abridged)

Discussion points.

1. How does Robyn's morning differ from Vic's?

2. What kind of person is Robyn? Prove your point.

3. Imagine what else Robyn will do on this day. How will her day end?

Text3

The Day before You Came

I must have left my house at eight because I always do,

My train, I'm certain, left the station

Just when it was due.

I must have read the morning paper going into town,

And having gotten through the editorial,

No doubt, I must have frowned.

I must have made my desk around a quarter after nine,

With letters to be read

And heaps of papers waiting to be signed.

I must have gone to lunch at half past twelve or so,

The usual place, the usual bunch,

And still on top of this, I'm pretty sure, it must have rained

The day before you came.

I must have lit my seventh cigarette at half past two

And at that time I never even noticed I was blue,

I must have kept on dragging through the business of the day

Without even knowing anything,

I hid a part of me away;

At five I must have left, there's no exception to the rule,

A matter of routine — I've done it ever since

I've finished school.

A train back home again —

Undoubtedly I must have read the evening paper then.

Oh, yes, I'm sure my life was well within it's usual frame

The day before you came

I must have opened my front door at eight o'clock or so

And stopped along the way to buy some Chinese food to go.

I'm sure I had my dinner watching something on TV —

There's not, I think, a single episode of Dallas that

I did not see. I must have gone to bed around a quarter after ten:

I need a lot of sleep and so I like to be in bed by then;

I must have read a while the latest one by Marilyn French

Or something in that style,

It's funny, but I had no sense of living without aim

The day before you came.

And turning out the light I must have yawned

And snuggled up for yet another night,

And rattling on the roof

I must have heard the sound of rain

The day before you came.

(A Song by ABBA)

DOMESTIC CHORES

Text 1

Dishwashers

Over the last fifty years housework has been made considerably easier by the invention of an increasing number of labour-saving de­vices and appliances, mostly electrical, which have drastically cut down the amount of time and effort previously needed to do the everyday household chores. For many years now there have been vacuum cleaners, electric irons, washing machines and floor-polishers; now we have electric potato-peelers and even electric carving knives. We can buy cookers that will switch themselves on and produce a meal that is ready to eat the minute we-get back home. If we have one of those electric pop-up toasters, we can make toast at the breakfast table itself. Mashed potatoes can be quickly and effortlessly made with a mixer, which usually has a variety of attachments that enable you to make all sorts of other more exotic things like fresh orange juice or real mayonnaise. And a tumble-drier can save you from the frustration of hanging out the washing only to have to bring it in again ten minutes later when menacing storm-clouds loom over.



Probably the most important piece of electrical equipment to become widely used in the last twenty years is the dishwasher. Washing up by hand is not only a time-consuming task (it can take longer than eating the meal itself), but also an extremely boring one, particularly when you are on your own, and it also ruins your hands. Dishwashers come in a range of different sizes and models to suit your purse, the size of your family, and the layout of the kitchen. They can be stood on the floor or on a worktop, or they can be mounted on a wall. And their capacity ranges from six to twelve place-settings. If you buy one, it is worth having it plumbed into the main water supply to save you having to connect robber pipes to your taps each time you use it. All you have to do is load the dirty dishes, glasses and cutlery into the racks inside the machine, pour in some special detergent powder, close the door and switch it on; it does the rest by itself while you get on and do more interesting things. Of course, most dishwashers can't accommodate large saucepans and frying pans, and you do have to scrape all scraps of solid food from the dishes before you put them in to avoid blocking the filters, but the machine will wash almost everything else and get rid of even the most stubborn egg and lipstick stains. When the washing cycle is over, the machine dries the plates and glasses with its own heat, and indeed they can be left inside until they are needed for the next meal.

If you buy a medium-sized dishwasher, you probably won't need to wash up more than once a day. The drawback of this, ofcourse, is that you have to have enough dishes, cutlery, etc. to last three or four meals. So it can happen that people who buy a dish­washer have to buy new china and glasses, either because they ha­ven't got enough or because the ones they've got don't fit the ma­chine. This extra expense may not only be necessary, but also desir­able, for one has to remember that dishwashers can be quite noisy. This means that many people prefer only to use their machine once a day, preferably last thing at night, when you can just shut the kitchen door on it and go to bed.

(From "Meanings into Words" by Adrian Doff, Christopher Jones and Keith Mitchell)

I. Read the text "Dishwashers" and express your agreement or disagree­ment with the following claims about dishwashers.

1. They cannot be stood on the floor.

2. You can hang them on the wall.

3. You cannot use them for washing cutlery.

4. You do not need any detergent powder for washing up.

5. There is a special place in any dishwasher for large sauce­pans and frying pans.

6. They get rid of most stubborn stains and of scraps of solid food.

7. Hot air flowing through dishes dries them.

8. Dishwashers can be quite noisy.

II. Work in pairs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having a dishwasher. One of you prefers to have it while the other is not fond of electrical appliances in general.

III. Work in pairs. Explain to each other in you own words the advantages and disadvantages of:

1. vacuum cleaners;

2. automatic cookers;

3. electric toasters;

4. mixers.

IV. Work in groups. Give your opinion on the use of labour saving devices. If you are in favour of this sort of appliances, use:

To make housework considerably easier; to cut down the amount of time and effort; to save one a lot of bother; labour and time consuming task; to do the everyday household chores; to switch themselves on/off; to save smb. from doing smth; extremely boring; to ruin one's hands; can be stood on the floor or on a worktop; can be mounted on a wall; to load the dirty dishes, etc. into; the racks inside the machine; pour in some detergent powder; to do the rest by itself; to dry the plates, etc.; the washing cycle; to be worth buying;

If you are not in favour of them, use:

To suit one's purse; the layout of one's kitchen; can't accom­modate large saucepans and frying pans; to have to scrape all scraps of solid food from the dishes; to block the filters; to have enough dishes, cutlery, etc. to fit the machine; extra expense, noisy; get out of order; to be not worth buying; to repair; to take away much use­ful and valuable physical activity; to need exercise.

Text 2

So great is our passion for doing things ourselves, that we are becoming increasingly less dependent on specialized labour. No one can plead ignorance of a subject any longer, for there are countless do-it-yourself publications. Armed with the right tools and materials, newly-weds gaily embark on the task of decorating their own homes. Men of all ages spend hours of their leisure time installing their own fireplaces, laying out their own gardens; build­ing garages and making furniture. Some really keen enthusiasts go so far as to build their own record players and radio transmitters. Shops cater for the do-it-yourself craze not only by running special advisory services for novices, but by offering consumers bits and pieces which they can assemble at home.

Wives tend to believe that their husbands are infinitely resource­ful and versatile. Even husbands who can hardly drive a nail in straight are supposed to be born electricians, carpenters, plumbers and mechanics. When lights fuse, furniture gets rickety, pipes get clogged, or vacuum cleaners fail to operate, wives automatically as­sume that their husbands will somehow put things right. The worst thing about the do-it-yourself game is that sometimes husbands live under the delusion that they can do anything even when they have been repeatedly proved wrong. It is a question of pride as much as anything else.

(Extract from "Developing Skills" by L. G.Alexander)

SHOPPING FOR FOOD

Text Sweet Sixteen

Sixteen soft pink blankets fold inwards over sixteen soft warm smiling babies. Sixteen dark-haired young mothers meet their six­teen babies' soft smiling mouths in a kiss.

Naomi looks round to see the cluster of other mothers, like her­self, mesmerised by Granada TV Rental's windows*. The cluster breaks, and its various components span out across the cool maible floor.

* Granada TV Rental — the name of a supermarket.

Lucy strains to stand up in her pushchair. Naomi eases her out of the canvas straps and settles her on the red seat of the silver trol­ley. She pauses momentarily, to decide which is to be the first aisle of the journey; should she start with soft drinks, vegetables, frozen foods, tins — she decides on fruit juice.

As they wheel past the rack of special-offer Mars bars, Naomi gently deflects Lucy's outstreched hand, her thumb briefly stroking the soft palm of Lucy's hand. I could do the shopping with my eyes shut, thinks Naomi, once a week for how many weeks, everything always in the same place. She turns the trolley to the right, to the fridge where the pineapple juice cartons — she stops. The open maw of the fridge gapes. It is empty. Ah well. Perhaps they have run out of cartons of fmit juice.

She decides to do dairy products next; cream, butter, some yo­ghurt — but instead, on the racks where the dairy products used to be, she finds pizzas, steak and kidney pies in transparent wrappings, and further on packets of frozen raspberries. Something is wrong. She begins to collect, feeling uneasy that it isn't in the order of her choice, worried that if she leaves things now to go on to another aisle, they will have disappeared when she gets back.

She wheels on, to where she expects to find the vegetable racks: the net bags of apples, avocados. But instead there are long spa­ghetti packets, rice, curled pasta. Again she collects, panic begin­ning to rise. She mustn't show it to Lucy, who is happy being wheeled at such sightseeing speed.

Naomi makes confidently for the cold meat counter; it is dark, piled up with towers of soft toilet paper; the plastic box where scraps of meat were sold cheaply, the ends of cuts, is upside down, empty. For the first time she notices the other women. They walk fast, their heads slightly bent, cradling highpiled baskets, anxiety on their faces, grabbing cereals, bread, soap powders, cleansers, hurrying past pensioners, running, running.

Lucy now has a fist in her. mouth, enjoying the game.

Naomi speeds up to join the pace, taking what she can whe­rever she can, until she arrives at the back of the floor space, at the point where the soft drinks used to be. Naomi gasps. The once smooth space is now a raw gash, copper cables twisting like thick muscle fibre, clinging to the broken brick and plaster gaps in the walls.

Naomi hears a voice saying. Nothing is where it was. Lucy gig­gles and she realises that she has spoken out loud. She looks round. No one seems to have heard her. They are all too busy. Naomi looks down at the trolley. It is full of everything she has meant to buy, but none of it is in the right order.

Naomi wheels the trolley slowly towards the cash tills. Lucy, sensitive to the change in pace, stops giggling; she is now pale and still. Naomi joins a queue at a cash till, watching the other women.

Naomi stands behind a woman who fumbles for her cheque book. Naomi watches paper bags, plastic carriers, boxes and baskets flash between the tills and the plate glass window.

Naomi's turn comes. She lifts a bottle of lemon and lime out of the trolley. The outside is sticky. Naomi moves her index and se­cond fingers to a dry part of the bottle, her hand slips, the bottle falls, its soft edge knocks against the rim of the conveyor belt and bursts.

Thick, bright green liquid squirts luminously back into the trol­ley, over tins of tuna fish. Lucy claps her hands in delight, and reaching into the trolley, she lifts a packet of white flour and drops it with a dull thud on the floor. A white cloud powders the feet of the women. Lucy giggles. Naomi feels a cloud of answering laughter rise in her, tries to keep it down, looks up and catches the eye of the woman queuing behind her. The woman smiles, ruffles Lucy's hair and then lifts a bag of tomatoes from her own baskets and hurls it overarm against the special offer of tea bags. Red seed drips down against the green boxes.

The women look at one another. Suddenly bits of flattened, squared ham fly free of their jellied, cellophane packets, duck pate bursts out of its blue pottery bowls, salt and vinegar crisps crackle underfoot, sliding through white cottage cheese.

The lights of the cash tills spark white, the women sitting at the money machines aren't sure which way to turn, one picks up a cu­cumber and slides it along the floor, into a welcoming pool of rasp­berry yoghurt.

Outside the plate glass window red and blue lights flash as pale men in dark blue peer through the window at all Christmas and birthday and anniversary celebrations in one.

Ten feet away, sixteen dark-haired mothers smile at their babies for the sixteenth time and enfold them in sixteen warm, pink blan­kets.

(Story by Michelene Wandor. Abridged)

I. Answer the questions.

1. Where does Naomi see sixteen mothers first?

2. Who is Lucy?

3. How old can Lucy be?

4. What aisle does Naomi choose to be the first one?

5. Does the sight in front of her eyes meet her expectations?

6. What does she decide to do next?

7. What does Naomi see on the racks where the dairy products used to be?

8. What does Naomi find on the vegetable racks?

9. What kind of box does she find empty?

10. Does Naomi notice the other women?

11. Does Naomi manage to collect everything she has meant to buy?

12. What does Naomi see at a cash till?

13. What happens when Naomi lifts a bottle of lemon and lime?

14. Why does Lucy drop a packet of white flour?

15. How does the woman behind her react?

16. What do the other women start doing?

17. How do the women sitting at the cash tills react?

18. What do the phrases "red and blue lights flash" and "pale men in dark blue" mean?

19. Why is the story called Sweet Sixteen?

II. Discussion points.

1. Do you find the end quite unexpected?

2. Was it an abnormal reaction on the part of the customers?

3. What caused this sort of reaction, in your opinion?

SHOPPING FOR CONSUMER GOODS

Text 1

Christmas Presents

... on Christmas day we went into the lounge and opened our presents. I was dead disappointed when I saw the shape of my pres­ent. I could tell at a glance that it didn't contain a single microchip. Ok, a sheepskin coat is warm but there's nothing you can do with it, except wear it. In fact after only two hours of wearing it, I got bored and took it off.

However, my mother was ecstatic about her egg timer; she said, 'Wow, another one for my collection.' Rosie ignored the chocolate Santa I bought her. That's 75 pence wasted! This is what I got:

3/4 length sheepskin coat (out of Little Woods catalogue)

Slippers (like Michael Caine wears, although not many people know that)

Swiss army knife (my father is hoping I'll go out into the fresh air and use it)

Tin of humbugs (supposedly from the dog)

Knitted Balaclava helmet (from Grandma Mole).

(Extract from "The Growing Pains of Adrian Mole " by Sue Townsend)

Discussion points.

1. Do you think that people who are closest to you expect more expensive presents?

2. Some people think that it is more preferable to receive a personal, carefully chosen gift however small and inexpen­sive, than a big, expensive gift or simply the gift of money. What do you think, and why?

3. Describe in detail an object that you always wanted as a child. Explain why you wanted it so badly, whether you eventually got it and how, and what the significance of it is for you now.

Text 2

A Shopping Expedition

The man in the gentlemen's outfitting department at Barkridge's held Paddington's hat at arm's length between thumb and fore­finger. He looked at it distastefully.

'I take it young ... er, gentleman, will not be requiring this any more, Madam?' he said.

'Oh yes, I shall,' said Paddington, firmly. 'I've always had that hat — ever since I was small.'

'But wouldn't you like a nice new one, Paddington?' said Mrs. Brown, adding hastily, 'for best?'

Paddington thought for a moment. 'I'll have one for worst if you like,' he said. 'That's my best one!'

The salesman shuddered slightly and, averting his gaze, placed the offending article in the far end of the counter.

'Albert!' He beckoned to a youth who was hovering in the back­ground. 'See what we have in size 4 7/8.' Albert began to rummage under the counter.

'And now, while we're about it,' said Mrs. Brown, 'we'd like a nice warm coat for the winter. Something like a duffle coat with toggles so that he can do it up easily, I thought. And we'd also like a plastic raincoat for the summer.'

The salesman looked at her haughtily. He wasn't very fond of bears and this one, especially, had been giving him queer looks ever since he'd mentioned his wretched hat. 'Has Madam tried the bar­gain basement?'* he began. 'Something in Government Surplus...'**

* A section of a shop set aside for special offeis, Li.e. goods at reduced prices. Not necessarily a basement.

** Government Surplus shops sprang up everywhere in England after the war. Originally they sold surplus military coats, shirts, boots, etc. Now they sell tough outdoor clothing, camping equipment, working clothes, etc. Very little of their stock is nowadays bought from the government.

'No, I haven't,' said Mrs. Brown, hotly. 'Government Surplus indeed! I've never heard of such a thing — have you, Paddington?'

'No,' said Paddington, who had no idea what Government Sur­plus was. 'Never!' he stared hard at the man, who looked away un­easily. Paddington had a very persistent stare when he cared to use it. It was a very powerful stare. One which his Aunt Lucy had taught him and which he kept for special occasions.

Mrs. Brown pointed to a smart blue duffle coat with a red lining. 'That looks the very thing,' she said.

The assistant gulped. 'Yes, Madam. Certainly, Madam.' He beckoned to Paddington. 'Come this way, sir.'

Paddington followed the assistant, keeping about two feet be­hind him, and staring very hard. The back of the man's neck seemed to go a dull red and he fingered his collar nervously. As they passed the hat counter, Albert, who lived in constant fear of his su­perior, and who had been watching the events with an open mouth, gave Paddington the thumbs-up sign.* Paddington waved a paw. He was beginning to enjoy himself.

* When a Roman gladiator had overcome another he was expected to ask the Emperor or senior person present at the games whether he was to kill his opponent or not. If the Emperor held his thumb down it meant 'kill him'. If the thumb pointed upward it meant 'spare him'. By extention, thumbs-up = life and hope.

He allowed the assistant to help him on with the coat and then stood admiring himself in the mirror. It was the first coat he had ever possessed. In Peru it had been very hot, and though his Aunt Lucy had made him wear a hat to prevent sunstroke, it had always been much too warm for a coat of any sort. He looked at himself in the mirror and was surprised to see not one, but a long line of bears stretching away as far as the eye could see. In fact, everywhere he looked there were bears, and they were all looking extremely smart.

'Isn't the hood a trifle large?' asked Mrs. Brown, anxiously.

'Hoods are being worn large this year. Madam,' said the assis­tant. 'It's the latest fashion.' He was about to add that Paddington seemed to have rather a large head anyway but he changed his mind. Bears were rather unpredictable. You never quite knew what they were thinking and this one in particular seemed to have a mind of his own.

'Do you like it, Paddington?' asked Mrs. Brown.

Paddington gave up counting bears in the mirror and turned round to look at the back Vicw. 'I think it's the nicest coat I've ever seen,' he said, after a moment's thought. Mrs. Brown and the assis­tant heaved a sigh of relief.

'Good,' said Mrs. Brown. "That's settled, then. Now there's just the question of a hat and a plastic mackintosh!'

She walked over to the hat counter, where Albert, who could still hardly take his admiring eyes off Paddington, had arranged a huge pile of hats. There were bowler hats, sun hats, trilby hats, berets, and even a very small top hat. Mrs. Brown eyed them doubtfully. 'It's largely a question of his ears. They stick out rather.'

'You could cut some holes for them,' said Albert.

The assistant froze him with a glance. 'Cut a hole in a Barkridge's hat!' he exclaimed. 'I've never heard of such a thing.'

Paddington turned and stared at him. 'I... er...' The assistant's voice trailed off. 'I'll go and fetch my scissors,' he said, in a queer voice.

'I don't think that will be necessary at all,' said Mrs. Brown, hurriedly. 'It's not as if he had to go to work in the city, so he doesn't want anything too smart. I think this woollen beret is very nice. The one with the pom-pom on top. The green will go well with his new coat and it'll stretch so that he can pull it down over his ears when it gets cold.'

Everyone agreed that Paddington looked very smart, and while Mrs. Brown looked for a plastic mackintosh, he trotted off to have another look at himself in the mirror. He found the beret was a little difficult to raise as his ears kept the bottom half firmly in place. But by pulling on the pom-pom he could make it stretch quite a long way, which was almost as good. It meant, too, that he could be po­lite without getting his ears cold.

The assistant wanted to wrap up the duffle coat for him but after a lot of fuss it was agreed that, even though it was a warm day, he should wear it. Paddington felt very proud of himself and he was anxious to see if other people noticed.

(Extract from "A Bear from Peru in England" by M. Bond)

Text 3

Harrods

ENTER A DIFFERENT WORLD

Welcome to Harrods — a different world for a million reasons. Harrods is the largest store in Europe with goods displayed in 60 windows and five and a half hectares of selling space. In one year over 14 million purchases are made in the 214 departments where you can buy anything from a pin to an elephant - if you can con­vince the manager of the Pet Department that you are a suitable elephant owner, that is! It is Harrods' policy to stock a wide and exciting range of merchandise in every department to give the cus­tomer a choice of goods which is unique in its variety and which no other store can match: Harrods stocks 100 different whiskies, 57 single malts, 450 different cheeses, 500 types of shirts and 9,000 ties to go with them, 8,000 dresses and 150 different pianos.

Harrods also offers a number of special services to its customers including a bank, an insurance department, a travel agency, Lon­don's last circulating library, a theatre ticket agency and a funeral service. £40 million worth of goods are exported annually from Harrods and the Export Department can deal with any customer purchase or order and will pack and send goods to any address in the world. Recently, for example, six bread rolls were sent to New York, a handkerchief to Los Angeles, a pound of sausages to a yacht anchored in the Mediterranean, a Persian carpet to Iran and a £5,000 chess set to Australia. Harrods has a world-wide reputation for first-class service. It has a staff of 4,000, rising to 6,000 at Christ­mas time.

Harrods sells 5 million different products, not all of which are actually kept in stock in the store itself. To handle this enormous range, a new computerized warehouse is being built. It will be the largest warehouse in Britain and the second largest in Europe and will deal with a wider range of goods than any other distribution centre in the world. Thanks to its modem technology a customer will be able to order any product (for example, a dining table or a dishwasher) from any assistant in the store. The assistant will be able to check its availability immediately on a computer screen, de­cide with the customer on a suitable delivery date and time and then pass the order directly to the warehouse through the computer. The time of delivery will be guaranteed to within one hour.

For many of London's visitors Harrods is an important stop on their sightseeing programme. Henry Charles Harrod's first shop was opened in 1849, but the building as it stands today was started in 1901 and it has become one of London's landmarks. It has many items of architectural interest: the plaster ceilings are original, as is the famous Meat Hall with its Victorian wall tiles, and the light fit­tings on the ground floor date back to the 1930s. A morning spent strolling round Harrods is guaranteed to give any shopper an appe­tite, and to feed its customers Harrods has six restaurants, ranging from the Circle self-service restaurants offering delicious food at reasonable prices to the famous Harrods Restaurant, where queues form every afternoon for the "Grand Buffet Tea", which fora fixed price allows you to eat as many cream cakes and gateaux as your greed will allow while waitresses serve you with India or China tea. If you feel like a drink you can choose between the pub atmosphere of the Green Man Tavern and the sophistication of the Cocktail Lounge. Harrods truly is a different world.

(Advertising Leaflet)

MEALS AND COOKING

Text

Correct Eating Habits

"Eat to live. Do not live to eat" is an old saying the truth of which a person realises only when he or she suffers from some seri­ous ailment like a heart condition and is advised by his or her physi­cian to cut down on his or her food. All schools of medicine lay em­phasis on correct eating habits for a healthy life.

Remember that after you have had a hearty meal, the pressure on your heart is increased. The amount of food should be such that the hunger is assuaged, but there is no feeling of fullness.

The second golden rule is to avoid fats and too much starch and carbohydrates derived from sugar. In communities where sugar in­take is low, there is very little incidence of heart disease.

The third rule is that stimulants like spices (chillies etc.) should be avoided. A bland diet with a little salt and a pinch of pepper may not taste as good as highly spiced food would, but it would be safer in the long run.

Kids with high cholesterol need an exotic diet. Mostly, they should stick to the guidelines that apply to all adults. Officially, the American Heart Association recommends that kids get no more than 30 percent of their calories from fat. That means (1) Limiting fast-food runs to once or twice a week. Otherwise, push the salads and leave out the jumbo fries, high-fat sauces, and everything-but-the-kitchen-sink burgers; (2) Sticking to lower-fat pizza toppings like mushrooms, ground beef, veggies, and plain cheese; (3) Choo­sing peanut butter, lean meat or skinless chicken or turkey for lunchtime; put limits on high-fat items like hot dogs, luncheon meats, and deep-fried anything; (4) Serving more complex carbohydrates like fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain products. Kids may not al­ways eat them, but at least they'll recognise them on sight.

Fortunately, lots of foods that kids like are also good for them. Most breakfast cereals are low in fat, for instance, as are pasta, lean meats, bread, tuna, skinless chicken, and fruit.

1. Discuss correct eating habits for grown-ups and children dwelling on:

1. the amount of food a person should eat;

2. the consumption of fats, starch and carbohydrates;

3. the use of stimulants;

4. going to fast-food places.

COLLEGE LIFE

Text 1

Classroom Notetaking

How would you feel if you were forced to spend hours and hours sitting in a hard-backed chair, eyes wide open, listening to the sound of someone else's voice? You wouldn't be allowed to sleep, eat, or smoke. You couldn't leave the room. To make matters worse, you'd be expected to remember every point the speaker made, and you'd be punished for foigetting. And, to top it off, you'd have to pay thousands of dollars for the experience.

Sounds like the torture scene from the latest spy thriller? Actu­ally, it's nothing of the kind. It's what all college students do who take a full load of courses.

Unfortunately, many students do regard these hours as tor­ture, and they do all sorts of things to deaden the pain. Some of them sit through class with glared eyes, minds wandering some­where. Others hide in the back of the room, sneaking glances at the newspaper or the book. Still others reduce the pain to zero: they simply don't come to class. These students do not realize that they are missing out on one of the most important aspects of their edu­cation.

One reason you should take lecture notes is that lectures add to what you read in textbooks. Lecturers combine the material and ap­proaches of many texts, saving you the trouble of researching an en­tire field. They keep up to date with their subjects and can include the latest studies or discoveries in their presentations. The best lec­turers combine knowledge with expert showmanship. Both infor­mative and entertaining speakers, they can make any subject leap wildly to life.

But isn't it good enough just to listen to these wonderful people without writing down what they say? Studies have shown that after two weeks you'll forget 80% of it. And you didn't come to the lec­ture room just to be entertained. You came to learn. The only way to keep the material in your head is to get it down in permanent form — in the form of lecture notes.

There are three steps to mastering the art of taking good lecture notes: the preparation, the note-taking process itself, and the post-lecture review.

Preparation.

First, mentally prepare yourself to take good notes. Examine your attitude. Remember, you're not going to the lecture room to be bored, tortured, or entertained; you're going there to learn. Also, examine the material the lecture will cover. Read the textbook chapter in advance.

Second, prepare yourself physically. Get a good night's sleep, and get to class — on time. Even better, get to class early, so you can get a good seat near the front of the room. You'll hear better there and be less tempted to let your mind wander. You'll also have time to open your notebook to a new page, find your pen, and write the date and topic of the lecture at the top. This way, you won't still be groping under your chair or flipping through pages when the lec­turer begins to speak.

Process.

Be prepared to do a good deal of writing in class. A good role of thumb for taking notes is, "when in doubt, write it down". After class, you will have time to go over your notes and make decisions about what is important enough to study and what is not. But in the midst of a lecture, you don't always have time to decide what is really important and what is quite secondary. You don't want to miss getting down a valuable idea.

Be sure to always write down what the lecturer puts on the board. If he or she takes the time to write something on the board, it is generally safe to assume that such material is important. And don't fall into the trap that some students make. They write down what is on the board but nothing more. They just sit and listen while the instructor explains all the connections between those words that have been chalked on the board. Everything may be perfectly clear to a student then, but several days later, chances are that all the connecting materials will be forgotten. If you write down the expla­nations in class, it will be much easier for you to make sense of the material and to study it later.

Here are some other hints for taking good classroom notes:

If you miss something, don't panic. Leave space for it in your notes and keep going. Later, get the missing information from a classmate or your textbook

Don't ignore the very beginning and end of class, often lecturers devote the first five minutes of their lectures to a review of material already covered or a preview of the next day's lecture. The last five minutes of a lecture can contain a clear summary of the class. Don't spend the first five minutes of class getting your materials out and the last five minutes putting them away. If you do, you'll probably miss something important.

Post-Lecture Review.

The real learning takes place after class. As soon as you have time, sit down and reread your notes. Fill in anything unclear or missing while it's still fresh in your mind. Then write a few key words and phrases that summarise the points of the lecture.

Cover your notes, and, using only these key words, try to recon­struct as much of the lecture as you can. This review will cement the major points in your memory and will save significant time when you study for the exam.

To sum all this up, be prepared to go into class and be not just an active listener but an active notetaker as well. Being in class and taking good notes while you are there are the most valuable steps you can take to succeed in college.

Answer the questions.

1. What do you do during a classroom lecture?

2. Do you sit and stare at the lecturer, wondering if he or she will ever stop?

3. Do you try to write everything which is said, but can't keep up?

4. Why take lecture notes? Isn't it good enough just to listen to the lecturer without writing down what he or she says?

5. What are the three steps to mastering the art of taking good lecture notes? Discuss in class each step.

6. Could you think of some more hints for taking good class­room notes?

7. Have you got your own tips on how to make the best use of class time?

Text 2

Examination

Then, for months, there was nothing in life save work: a careful planning out of day and night in order that sleeping and eating and exercise might encroach as little as possible on the working hours.

From early morning till late at night the desperate meek untidy heads of girls were bowed over tables in the library, their faces when they lifted them were feverish and blurred with work.

Pages rustled; pencils whispered; squeaking shoes tiptoed in and out. Somebody tapped out a dreary tune on her teeth; somebody had a running cold; somebody giggled beneath her breath; some­body sighed and sighed.

Examination week.

This week there was nothing in your mind save the machine which obeyed you smoothly, turning but dates and biographies, contrasting, discussing, theorizing.

Judith walked in a dream among the pale examination faces that flowed to their doom. Already at nine o'clock the heat struck up from the streets, rolled downwards from the roofs. By midday it would by extremely unpleasant in Cambridge.

This was the great examination hall. Girls were filing in, each carrying a glass of water, and searching in a sort of panic for her place. Here was a white ticket labelled Earle, J. So Judith Earte really was expected, an integral part of this grotesque organized un­reality. No hope now.

The bench was hard.

All over the room girls' heads turned, nodding and winking at friends, whispering, giggling and grimacing with desperate bravery. One simulated suicide by leaning her bosom on her fountain pen.

Then panic descended suddenly upon Judith. Her head was like a floating bubble; there was nothing in it at all. She caught at threads of knowledge and they broke, withered and dissolved like cobwebs in the hand. She struggled to throw off a crowding confu­sion of half remembered words.

A headful of useless scraps rattling about in emptiness — The clock struck nine.

'You can begin now', said a thin voice from the dais.

There was an enormous sigh, a rustling of paper, then silence.

The questions had, nearly all, at first glance a familiar reassuring look. It was all right. Panic vanished, the mind assembled its ener­gies coolly, precisely, the pen flew.

After an hour the first pause to cool her forehead with a stick of frozen Eau de Cologne and to sip some water.

Girls were wriggling and biting their pens. Somewhere the toothtapper was playing her dreary tune.

Another hour fled. The trouble was having too much to say, rather than too little. The room was rigid, dark with concentration now.

Three hours. It was over. You could not remember what you had written; but you had never felt more firm and sure of mind. Three hours nearer to life.

A troop of undergraduates passed on the way from their exami­nation room. They looked amused and exhilarated. They stuffed their papers into their pockets, lit pipes, straightened their shoulders and went cheerfully to lunch.

The girls crept out in twos and threes, earnestly talking, com­paring the white slips they carried.

'Did you do this one?'

'What did you put for that?'

'Oh, I say! Will they take off marks do you think?'

'It was a beast.'

'Oh, it might have been worse.'

Girls really should be trained to be less obviously female stu­dents. It only needed a little discipline.

'Of course I see now I shan't pass — It seems a pity, after all that work — My memory is practically gone —'

Back to the vault now for another three hours.

That day passed smoothly; and the next.

Suddenly there were no answers to be written from nine till twelve, from two till five — no lectures, no coachings, no notes, no fixed working hours. Instead, a great idleness under whose burden you felt lost and oppressed. The academic years were gone for ever.

(Extract from "Dusty Answer" by R. Lehman)

CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE

Text

Improving Appearance

Most women all over the world are interested in improving their appearance. Here are some passages for those who care and wish to make the best of themselves — of their features, their skin and theirfigure.

What you have got to realise, however, is that true beauty is not just a matter of having a pretty face. It is much more.

Real beauty is the self-awareness that makes you. It is having sparkle, poise, serenity and confidence. It is having an awareness that makes everyone you come in contact with feel that you are a very special and attractive person. It is radiance that comes from good health.

Beauty is being able to make the best of yourself.

Putting it another way — there really are no plain people in this world. Undoubtedly some may have better features than others, but then, very very few of us can claim to come up to the current stan­dards of plastic beauty.

Each one of us can, or is, at least, capable of improving oneself, and exuding the radiant glow of an attractive and confident person.

A careless attitude about yourself and an abuse of the body are quickly followed by fading and weakness, whereas careful nurturing will prolong the years of youthfulness, beauty and comfort.

Give proper care to your body, and you can be vitally alive as well as stay attractive all your life.

Remember, nothing you do is going to perform any magical change overnight. Any of the treatments you follow for body care has to be regularly repeated in order to give it a fair chance to work.

As health and beauty go hand in hand, check on the list of ques­tions listed below to see if you qualify to be a member of the healthy group.

1. Do you have a good posture? There should be no sagging in the middle or drooping in the shoulders.;

2. Are your eyes clear?

3. Do you have a happy facial expression that is alive and lacks strain?

4. Are you fussy about your food? Do you eat well?

5. Do you sleep well?

6. Is the colour of your skin healthy?

7. Are your teeth in good condition?

8. Do you take a lively interest in living?

9. Finally — do you give the general impression of good health and vigour?

The answers to all the questions except the first part of question 4 should be an emphatic YES. However, if out of the ten "yes" an­swers you score right with seven to eight questions, you should be in fairly good health.

You need a full-length mirror so that you can look at yourself critically from the head to toe, keep a check on your figure and examine your posture.

Healthy eyes have a sparkle about them that is quite irresistible. Like your skin, fair and shining, clear eyes indicate good health. If you suffer ill-health or feel emotionally or physically low, your eyes become dull and strained-looking.

Sleep is very vital for clear healthy eyes. You need at an average at least eight hours of sleep in a day, without it, your eyes become dull, puffy and red. Dark circles also appear.

CHOOSING A HAIR STYLE.

The style that you choose for your hair should depend on the type of hair you have and on the shape of your face.

However fashions may fluctuate, there are certain rules that do not change. Keep these in mind before you choose the style.

Keep fine hair short and fluffy.

Hair that is medium or coarse takes most styles well.

Heavy or thick hair must not be kept very long, as it does not hang well.

Study the shape of the face by severely drawing back all your hair. Remember, the right hair style can make you look more at­tractive by drawing attention away from your physical flaws towards your more attractive features.

LONG FACE

Keep your hair fairly short — long hair tends to "pull down" your whole appearance. Go in for width at the temple — it helps to "broaden" your face. Fringes look good as they help to "shorten" the face.

HEART-SHAPED FACE

Softness at the temples and fullness just below ear level suits a heart-shaped face best. Avoid a centre parting because it tends to emphasise your pointed chin.

SQUARE FACE

Fringes and curls flicked forward help to soften "corners". Cut your hair short at the temples. Avoid a severe hair style.

ROUND FACE

The ideal hair length is just below chin level. Choose a straightish style with a centre parting. Avoid fringes, curls or waves.

OVAL FACE

An oval face can take most hair styles well. However, do keep your age and personality in mind.

PEAR-SHAPED FACE

Give width to temples and keep hair off the forehead. Short hair looks best.

MAKING-UP

Quite possibly you have an imperfect skin or imperfect features. But do not despair. Make-up applied well can do wonders for your appearance.

Perfect skin and perfect features are exceedingly rare. Most models in the glamorous beauty and fashion magazines have in fact quite unremarkable faces. It is make-up that makes them look so eye-catching and glamorous.

If, however, you are one of the rare and lucky ones to have a perfect skin and perfect features, remember that good make-up can make you absolutely beautiful.

Everyday make-up should look completely natural. Its primary object should be to correct colour faults of the complexion, disguise imperfections and accentuate good features.

When your skin is healthy and absolutely clean, make-up can, and should be kept light. Radiance, rather than a pink and white prettiness, should be your aim.

Use less make-up all the time for a fresher and younger look.

(Extract from "The Piper Book of Beauty" by Chodev)

I. Read the passage and say what you think of it.

II. Choose advice which suit your type of face adding advice of your own if necessary.

WEATHER

Text I

British Weather

"Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather." This statement, often made by Englishmen to describe the special meteorological conditions of their country, is both typical of the English and true. In no country other than England can one experi­ence four seasons in the course of a single day! Day may break as a mild spring morning; an hour or so later black clouds may have ap­peared from nowhere and the rain may be pouring down. At midday conditions may be really wintry with the temperature down by about fifteen degrees. And then, in the late afternoon, the sky will clear, the sun will begin to shine and for an hour or two before dark­ness falls, it will be summer.

The problem is that we never can be sure which of the different types of weather we will find. Not only do we get several different sorts of weather in one day, but we may very well get a spell of win­ter in summer and vice versa. The foreigner may laugh when he sees the Englishman setting forth on a brilliantly sunny morning wearing a raincoat and carrying an umbrella, but he may well regret his laughter later in the day! And, of course, the weather's variety pro­vides a constant topic of conversation, and you must be good at dis­cussing the weather.

(Extract from "Modern English I for Teacher Students" by G. Graustein)

Text II

British Climate

Britain has a generally mild and temperate climate. It lies in middle latitudes to the north-west west of the great continen­tal land mass of Eurasia, but the prevailing winds are south­ westerly. The climate is subject to frequent changes but to few ex­tremes of temperature. Although it is largely determined by that of the eastern Atlantic, occasionally during the winter months easterly winds may bring a cold, dry, continental weather which, once es­tablished, may persist for many days or even weeks.

In Britain, south-westerly winds are the most frequent, and those from an easterly quarter the least. Winds are generally stronger in the north than in the south of the British Isles, stronger on the coasts than inland, and stronger in the west than in the east. The strongest winds usually occur in the winter. The stormiest re­gion of the British Isles is along the north-west coast, with over 30 gales a year; south-east England and the east Midlands are the least stormy.

Near sea level the mean annual temperature ranges from 8 °C (47 °F) in the Hebrides to 11 °C (52 °F) in the extreme south-west of England. During a normal summer, the temperature occasionally rises above 27 °C (80 °F) in the south, but temperatures of 32 °C (90 °F) and above are infrequent. Extreme minimum tempera­tures depend to a large extent on local conditions, but -7 °C (20 °F)may occur on a still, clear winter's night, -12 °C (10 °F) is rare, and -18 °C (0 °F) or below has been recorded only during exceptionally severe winter periods.

The British Isles as a whole have an annual rainfall of over 40 inches, while England alone has about 34 inches. Rain is fairiy well distributed throughout the year, but, on the average, March to June are the driest months and October to January the wettest. A period of as long as three weeks without rain is exceptional, and usually confined to limited areas. In successive years, however, remarkably contrasting weather conditions are sometimes experienced.

The distribution of sunshine over the British Isles shows a gen­eral decrease from south to north, a decrease from the coast inland, and a decrease with altitude. During May, June and July — the months of longest daylight — the mean daily duration of sunshine varies from five and a half hours in western Scotland to seven and a half hours in the extreme south-east of England; during the months of shortest daylight — November, December and January — sun­shine is at a minimum, with an average of half an hour a day in some parts of the Highlands in Scotland and two hours a day on the south coast of England.

In fine, still weather there is occasionally haze in summer and mist and fog in winter. Until about 1956 dense fogs containing smog and other pollution from the burning of coal used to occur from time to time in London and other centers of population. Since then, as a result of changes in fuel usage and the operation of clean air legislation, fogs have become less severe.

(Extract from "Britain. An Official Handbook")

I. Read and translate the text.

II. Work in pairs. Let one of the students read out some sentences from the text and the other student interrupt him, asking him/her to clarify things, to check the details.

► Pattern

a) — Britain has a generally mild and temperate climate. It lies...

— What do you mean "temperate "?

— I mean it is free from the extremes of heat and cold.

— Oh, I understand.

b) — The climate is subject to frequent changes but to few extremes of temperature.

— Sony, I don't quite see what you mean by "subject to frequent changes"?

— I mean that it has a tendency to change frequently.

— I think I understand.

c) — In fine still weather there is occasionally a haze in summer.

— What is a haze?

— It is a thin mist.

— I see.

Text III

The Weather

This is the most important topic in the land. Do not be misled by memories of your youth when, on the Continent, wanting to de­scribe someone as exceptionally dull, you remarked: 'He is the type who would discuss the weather with you.' In England this is an ever-interesting, even thrilling topic, and you must be good at dis­cussing the weather.

EXAMPLES FOR CONVERSATION

For Good Weather

'Lovely day, isn't it?'

'Isn't it beautiful?'

'The sun...'

'Isn't it goigeous?'

'Wonderful, isn't it?'

'It's so nice and hot...'

'Personally, I think it's so nice when it's hot — isn't it?'

'I adore it — don't you?'

For Bad Weather

'Nasty day, isn't it?'

'Isn't it dreadful?'

'The rain... I hate rain...'

'I don't like it at all. Do you?'

'Fancy such a day in July. Rain in the morning, then a bit of sunshine, and then rain, rain, rain, all day long.'

'I remember exactly the same July day in 1936.' .

'Yes, I remember too.'

'Or was it in 1928?'

'Yes, it was.'

'Or in 1939?'

'Yes, that's right.'

Now observe the last few sentences of this conversation. A very important rule emerges from it. You must never contradict anybody when discussing the weather. Should it hail or snow, should hurricanes uproot the trees from the sides of the road, and should some­one remark to you: 'Nice day, isn't it?' — answer without hesita­tion: 'Isn't it lovely?'

Learn the above conversations by heart. If you, are a bit slow in picking things up, learn at least one conversation, it would do won­derfully for any occasion.

If you do not say anything else for the rest of your life, just re­peat this conversation, you will still have a fair chance of passing as a remarkably witty man of sharp intellect, keen observation and ex­tremely pleasant manners.

English society is a class society, strictly organized almost on corporative lines. If you doubt this, listen to the weather forecasts. There is always a different weather forecast for farmers. You often hear statements like this on the radio:

'Tomorrow it will be cold, cloudy and foggy; long periods of rain will be interrupted by short periods of showers.'

And then:

'Weather forecast for farmers. It will be fair and warm, many hours of sunshine.'

You must not forget that the farmers do grand work of national importance and deserve better weather.

It happened on innumerable occasions that nice, warm weather had been forecast and rain and snow fell all day long, or vice versa. Some people jumped rashly to the conclusion that something must be wrong with the weather forecasts. They are mistaken and should be more careftil with their allegations.

I have read an article in one of the Sunday papers and now I can tell you what the situation really is. All troubles are caused by anti­cyclones. (I don't quite know what anticyclones are, but this is not important; I hate cyclones and am very anti-cyclone myself.) The two naughtiest anti-cyclones are the Azores and the Polar anti­cyclones.

The British meteorologists forecast the right weather — as it really should be — and then these impertinent little anti-cyclones interfere and mess up everything.

That again proves that if the British kept to themselves and did not mix with foreign things like Polar and Azores anti-cyclones they would be much better off.

(Story by G.Mikes)

I. Discussion points.

1. What topics besides the weather are most important in Russia?

2. What other conversational formulas would you recommend to leam by heart in order to look a person of sharp intel­lect?

3. What other groups of population besides fanners deserve better weather?

4. What else interferes with the right forecasting except anti­cyclones?

5. What would you prescribe to the Russians to be much bet­ter off?

II. Choose the most unexpected answer and think of an unexpected prize for it.

Poem

January Brings the Snow

January brings the snow,

Makes our feet and fingers glow.

February brings the rain,

Thaws the frozen lake again.

March brings breeze loud and shrill,

Stirs the dancing daffodil.

April brings the primrose sweet,

Scatters daisies at our feet.

May brings flocks of pretty lambs,

Skipping by their fleecy dams.

June brings tulips, lilies, roses,

Fills the children's hands with posies.

Hot July brings cooling showers,

Apricots and gilly flowers.

August brings the sheaves of corn

Then the harvest home is borne.

Warm September brings the fruit,

Sportsmen then begin to shoot.

Fresh October brings the pheasant,

Then to gather nuts is pleasant.

Dull November brings the blast,

Then the leaves are whirling fast.

Chill December brings the sleet,

Blazing fire and Christmas treat.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

Family Life


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aspirant [@'spaI@r@nt] претендент
aunt тётя
baby-sitter няня
bachelor холостяк
be head over ears in love влюбиться по уши
be lost in admiration of smb. заглядываться на кого-либо
be related быть родственниками
be of full age быть совершеннолетним
best man шафер
bless the marriage благословить брак
bread-winner кормилец
bride невеста
bridesmaid подружка невесты
brother брат
care about smb. заботиться